Abstract: Contemporary physics has many unsolved problems. Most of them are due to inadequacy of theories or illogical application of one theory to seemingly similar problem elsewhere. An alternative concept, presented in book 'MATTER (Re-examined)' proposes to provide logical explanations to all these apparent problems. In this article, author proposes to present short notes and pointers to detailed explanations in the book. All explanations are based on a single assumption that 'Substance is fundamental and matter alone provides substance to all real entities'. There are neither imaginary particles nor mysterious actions nor actions at a distance through empty space in this concept. Cause and effect relations are followed in all topics.
Abstract: Lack of fundamental set of assumptions in physics encourages or often compels physicists to conceive different sets of assumptions (often unrelated) for different phenomena. When taken together they often contradict each other. Because of numerous contemporary assumptions, physics is no more an exact science. This affair can be remedied only by sorting existing assumptions out and tabulating one basic set of fundamental assumptions, on which explanations to every physical phenomenon should depend. If any assumption in physics is ripe for re-thinking, I will suggest 'actions at a distance through empty space' as the first candidate. All real entities are made of matter. Existence of matter is the solitary phenomenon without prior cause. Therefore, original set of assumptions should be only with respect to matter. Further development of physics, in all spheres, should be based on these original set of assumptions. To add to or modify original assumptions, whenever certain phenomenon is not readily explainable, is incorrect practise. Multitude of assumptions, currently used in physics, may be substituted by a single and basic assumption that 'Substance is fundamental and matter alone provides substance to all physical entities'. Although conclusions may diverge from current beliefs, reasoning based on this single fundamental assumption can logically explain all physical phenomena.
Abstract: Logical development of physical theories is hindered by lack of rational mechanism of interactions between matter bodies. This has led to many illogical assumptions. The concept, currently used to facilitate interactions between matter bodies - 'action at a distance through empty space' - has no mechanism of action. Vague forms of fields and aether, which are also in use suffer lack of logical structure or mechanisms of action. Until these are replaced by a concept on a rational as well as real entity to facilitate as a medium between matter bodies, development of physical theories will continue to become more and more irrational. Matter is the only real entity in the universe. Hence, it is logical to expect matter to provide structured matter bodies as well as a universal medium that inter-links all matter bodies in nature. Matter itself, has to be in the form of infinite number of basic matter particles. A logical theory, based on only one type of postulated matter particle will lead to the development of an ideal universal medium. This universal medium should be able to account for all physical phenomena in nature, under the same rules and under all conditions.
Alternative hypothesis, presented in book, 'MATTER (Re-examined)' is a revolutionary new concept, which explains all physical phenomena on the basis of a single assumption - 'Substance is fundamental and matter alone provides substance to all real entities'. Unstructured matter-particles, derived from this assumption - Quanta of matter - in various combinations form an all-encompassing universal medium and all 3D matter-bodies. Itinerary, that lead to development of this concept, is briefly enumerated below. All steps along development of this concept and their conclusions are based on logical elaborations from characteristic properties of postulated quanta of matter. Except quanta of matter, no virtual particles, vauge entities or their assumed properties are used. Kindly refer the book for detailed explanations on any point.
Abstract: Due to structure of three-dimensional matter-particles and apparent interaction between them free macro bodies have a natural tendency to gradually reshape themselves to perfect spheres in 3D space. Sub-structured macro bodies tend to increase their existence into most number of spatial dimensions. Contrary to this tendency of macro bodies, pure (unstructured) matter-particles tend to reduce their existence into minimum number of spatial dimensions. This contradictory behaviour of matter (in its pure state and in sub-structured state) can be shown as the basis of all physical phenomena in nature, including creation, sustenance, (apparent) interactions and eventual destruction of macro bodies.
Abstract: No actions can be performed at a distance through empty space. An all-encompassing medium is essential to facilitate (apparent) physical actions between material bodies at a distance. Aether, used in aether-theories and other imaginary entities currently used to explain various physical phenomena are too vague and fails to describe many physical actions of matter bodies, logically. By realising a real entity that fills the entire space as an all-encompassing universal medium, the formless space can be replaced with a structured real entity. An ideal universal medium should be a real entity with positive existence and with all properties currently assigned to space or to other imaginary entities like; different types of aether, imaginary particles or various types of fields.
Abstract: 'Action at a distance through empty space' is an illogical assumption. An all-encompassing medium is essential to facilitate physical actions. Aether, used in aether-theories is too vague and it fails to describe many physical actions about 3D matter-bodies, logically. Alternative concept, presented in the book, 'MATTER (Re-examined)' envisages an all-encompassing medium, which has real constituent matter-particles, structure, properties and actions. For details, kindly refer to same.
Abstract: Matter is the only substance that can provide objective reality and positive existence in space. (Real) universal medium should be made of matter. It should be homogeneous and fill entire space, outside 3D matter-particles, without voids (empty space). At the same time, it should be flexible enough to have properties of perfect fluid. Anisotropic nature, which allows relative motions within, requires that universal medium should be structured by sub-particles and each of its constituent matter-particles has lot of (apparently) vacant space around it, to allow relative movements. This article attempts to describe, how these contradicting properties are simultaneously achieved in the universal medium, proposed in alternative concept, presented in the book, 'MATTER (Re-examined)'.
Abstract: An all-encompassing universal medium, made of 'real' matter particles, fills entire space outside 'basic 3D matter-particles'. It is homogeneous, isotropic and self-stabilizing multiple-entity. Because of its inherent compression, it squeezes all 'basic 3D matter-particles' by direct contact. This all-around push action on basic 3D matter-particles by universal medium is 'gravitation'. Strength of gravitation is proportional to the extent of universal medium, away from the point of action. Extent of universal medium on outer-sides of two basic 3D matter-particles is always more (with correspondingly higher gravitation) than extent of universal medium in between them (with correspondingly lower gravitation). Greater pushes from outer-sides and lower pushes from in between, compel basic 3D matter-particles to move towards each other. Cause of this motion appears as 'attraction' between basic 3D matter-particles. This phenomenon is interpreted as 'gravitational attraction' between them. 'Gravitational attraction' is a minor by-product of separate gravitational push-actions on each of basic 3D matter-particles. Magnitude of gravitational attraction between two macro bodies is the resultant of gravitational attractions between their constituent basic 3D matter-particles. It is the differences in extents of universal medium on either side of constituent basic 3D matter-particles that produce gravitational attraction between two macro bodies, rather than shadow-effects on each other.
Abstract: Inertia is a property that causes macro bodies to respond sluggishly to external efforts. Since no other entity that can prevent instantaneous action by external efforts on a free macro body or maintain its constant state of motion is known, phenomenon of inertia is usually attributed to matter itself, in negative sense. 3D matter is inert; it has no ability to move, act or oppose external efforts. Property of inertia rightly belongs to universal medium, whose action moves 3D matter-bodies. Property of inertia is due to latticework-structures in universal medium. Only when mechanism of action of external effort and mechanism of motion of 3D matter-bodies, as envisaged in the book 'MATTER (Re-examined)', are understood, nature of inertia will be clear.
Abstract: Most physical actions in three-dimensional world are recognized by displacements of 3D matter-bodies in space. In these cases, mechanisms of action and motion are synonymous. As 3D matter is inert, all actions and apparent interactions (attributed to 3D matter-bodies) are by all-encompassing universal medium that fill entire space, outside basic 3D matter-particles. Action of effort invests additional work in universal medium within and surrounding a macro body. Additional work, in universal medium, moves at linear speed corresponding to external effort. As they move all enclosed basic 3D matter-particles (of macro body) are carried with them. Additional work, associated with a macro body, determines its state of motion.
Abstract: Energy, an undefined entity derived from work, is generally equated to motion. This has necessitated introduction of certain motion of physical entities, wherever energy is envisaged. All actions are results of work-done rather than energy. Although energy has no definite form, structure or existence, it has gradually come to usurp rightful status of work about a physical entity. Author proposes an alternative concept that may restore work, motion and energy to their fair and logical status.
Abstract: Matter is the only substance that can provide objective existence in space and physical reality to an entity. All real entities are made of matter. Due to lack of a reference, we have no measuring scale to determine matter-contents of real objects. Instead one attribute of matter, mass, represents matter-contents of material objects. Mass, used for this purpose, is itself is often bifurcated into inertial mass, gravitational mass, etc. Inertial mass is measure of inertia, a property attributed to 3D matter-bodies. Gravitational mass is derived from magnitude of gravitational attraction, experienced by a macro body. However, importance accorded to mass (in place of matter-content of an object) caused matter to be regarded as an unnecessary entity even for existence of material bodies and encouraged developments of exotic theories and mysterious particles. Devising a logical measurement scale can help restore glory to matter, rightly due to it, as the only substance that can provide existence to all real objects.
Abstract: Light is sensed by rational beings. Only real entities can produce sensory perception. Matter alone provides substance needed for objective reality in space. Hence, light or its components are essentially made of matter. Universal medium (formed by matter), under suitable conditions, creates components of light from itself. For existence, it is essential for light's components to move at the highest possible linear speed, at which universal medium can move them and spin at frequency, proportional to their matter-contents. Flow of these components constitutes radiation of light or similar radiations. This essay very briefly describes mechanism of creation and development of light's components, as envisaged in alternative concept, presented in the book, 'MATTER (Re-examined)'. For details, kindly refer same.
Abstract: Light is flow of three-dimensional matter-corpuscles, each corpuscle accompanied by separate set of distortions in universal medium. Together, they constitute radiation of photons. For existence, it is essential for matter-core of a photon to move at the highest possible linear speed, at which universal medium can move it. This limit endows light with constancy of its linear speed. Constancy of linear speed is related to and hence depends on nature of universal medium in region of space, where light is radiated. This essay very briefly describes mechanism of light's motion and stabilizing mechanism of its linear speed, as envisaged in alternative concept, presented in the book, 'MATTER (Re-examined)'. For details, kindly refer to same.
Abstract: In material world matter provides substance to all real entities. Hence, it is logical to conceive development-hierarchy of various matter-particles, starting from unstructured matter, rather than bifurcating superior matter-particles into inferior ones on the basis of noticed properties. Diverse properties of various matter-particles are derived from immediate inferior matter-particles and depend on their physical structures. Very brief account of development of various matter-particles, from unstructured matter, as conceived in alternative concept presented in book 'MATTER (Re-examined)', is presented in this article.
Abstract: All natural (inertial) motions are in straight lines. Rotating motion or motion in circular path is the result of simultaneous straight-line motions of 3D matter-particles of a macro body, in different directions at differing linear speeds, appropriate to their locations in it. A macro body, moving in circular path, is under a constant inward effort. It simultaneously has two linear motions; one linear (centripetal) motion due to centripetal effort towards centre of circular path and another linear motion due its momentum in a direction deflected outward from tangent to circular path. Outward component of linear motion gives rise to assumption of imaginary 'centrifugal force'. Centripetal motion not only compensates outward component of linear motion but also deflects direction of linear motion inward. Explanations on rotary motion with respect to absolute (inertial) reference frame can give real parameters without use of imaginary entities. Work, invested by external effort about a macro body, continues to act even after cessation of external effort, until it is stabilized and macro body's motion attains steady state. Phenomenon of inertial delay operates not only during application of external effort but also during its cessation. Ignoring this fact caused the assumption that direction of instantaneous linear motion of a macro body, moving in a circular path, is tangential to its path. In following explanation, motion of a macro body in circular path is described, in accordance with alternative concept, presented in the book 'MATTER (Re-examined)'. For details, kindly refer to same.
Abstract: Isaac Newton's 'bucket argument' was designed to show that true rotational motion could be defined only with respect to absolute space and not with respect to surrounding macro bodies, whatsoever states of motion they have. Even if whole universe (surrounding a bucket of water on earth's surface) rotates about it, water surface in bucket will remain flat, unless bucket itself has a true spin motion with respect to absolute reference. Further mathematical analysis pointed towards real action by imaginary 'centrifugal force'. It is not logical for imaginary efforts to cause real action. Analysing actions of 3D matter-particles of water (in rotating bucket in universal medium) by additional work associated with them (instead of equilibrium of 'forces' on it) can give logical explanation of actions, without using imaginary 'centrifugal force'. All conclusions expressed in this article are from the book, 'MATTER (Re-examined)'. For details, kindly refer to the same.
Abstract: Currently, 'central force' - an apparent effort between two free macro bodies along the line joining them - is estimated in relative frames of reference. It is also assumed that action by 'central force' directly corresponds to its magnitude. Estimation of magnitude and direction of 'central force' on planetary bodies or central body, in a planetary system, assumes that the centre of planetary system is static in space. While considering a satellite's orbital path, centre of corresponding planet is assumed static in space. Although such calculations help to determine relative positions of these macro bodies, it obscures causes and magnitudes of many other important phenomena, related to planetary motion. Determining magnitude and direction of 'central force' and its action with respect to absolute reference can give us logical explanations to many puzzling phenomena on planetary motions/systems.
Abstract: In any system of macro bodies, relative considerations can provide only parameters of their relative positions. Use of reference frame, related to a static central macro body, causes planetary orbital path to appear as closed geometrical figure around the central macro body. As central macro body is a moving macro body; this does not reflect physical reality. Although this helps to explain cyclic phenomena, properties attributed to elliptical/circular planetary orbital paths are unreal. Due to constant linear motions of free macro bodies in space, it is practically impossible for a free macro body to orbit around another, in any type of closed geometrical path. However, they may orbit about each other and follow a common median path in space. Real orbital path of a planetary body is wavy about median path of central body, with the planetary body moving to front and rear of central body, cyclically.
Abstract: It is an established fact that sun is a moving macro body in space. By simple mechanics, it is physically impossible for a free planetary body to orbit around a moving central body, in any type of geometrically closed path. Both, a circle and an ellipse, are closed geometrical figures. Hence, elliptical planetary orbital paths (closed geometrical figures) around sun are false or apparent. A planetary body moves in same direction and along with its central body. It is only when we imagine reversing the direction of planetary body's motion, on one side of central body's path; we can get a geometrically closed figure for planet's apparent orbital path. Use of a reference frame, related to a static central body, causes planetary orbital paths to appear as closed geometrical figures around central body. As central body is a moving body, this does not reflect physical reality. Although they help to explain apparent phenomena, all properties attributed to elliptical/circular planetary orbital path are unreal. Real physical actions are restricted to real entities and they have to be understood with reference to an absolute reference. Since elliptical shape of a planetary orbit is an imaginary aspect, it has its limitations to explain real actions in nature. Mechanism of orbit-formation and limitations of orbiting macro bodies, described in this article, are based on a radically different dynamics from an alternative concept presented in book, 'MATTER (Re-examined)'.
Abstract: A part of action by 'central force' between planetary and central bodies causes their spin motions. All macro bodies in planetary systems develop mean accelerating spin motion. Depending on their orbital parameters, planets and central bodies may spin forward, rearward or, in rare cases, may have no spin motion at all. All macro bodies in a planetary system tend to spin in common orbital plane. Angular accelerations of orbiting macro bodies continue indefinitely until centrifugal actions disintegrate planets and planetary system. In an orbiting macro body, consistency of its matter-content and radial size determines relative spin speeds at different parts. Equatorial region of all very large orbiting macro bodies spin faster than their polar regions or regions towards their spin-axes. Lengthening of (terrestrial) solar days, presently misinterpreted as slowing down of earth's spin motion, is the result of insufficient compensation to earth's apparent spin motion about sun.
Abstract: It is generally believed that planetary magnetism is the result of motion of molten iron alloys in planetary body's core region. An assumed dynamo mechanism, in core region of a planetary body, generates magnetic field by feedback loop: electric current loops in the region creates magnetic field and changing magnetic loops in turn creates electric fields. This assumption uses circular logic. As linear speed of a spinning planetary body is much greater than (tangential) linear motion of its constituent matter particles due to planetary body's spin speed, every matter particle in spinning planetary body always moves in same direction in space. Spin motion of a planetary body is an illusion and it is valid only for considerations with respect to static reference of planetary body's spin axis. As real motion of all matter particles of a spinning planetary body (with respect to absolute reference) is always in same linear direction, swirling motion of a planetary body's interior is a myth. To consider this imaginary swirling motion of planetary body's magma, as the cause of planetary magnetism is not tenable. Even for dynamo effect to occur, a primary source of magnetism is required, which is absent in this case. Cause and nature of planetary magnetism, described in this article, is based on a radically different concept, presented in 'MATTER (Re-examined)'. For details, kindly refer to same .
Abstract: This article attempts to give a simple and logical explanation to tidal mechanism, based on a radically different dynamics, presented in book 'MATTER Re-examined)' . Tides are caused by (accelerating) actions of external efforts on a linearly moving spinning-macro body. Each external effort alters shape of spinning macro body, separately, to produce its own set of tides. Change in shape of a spinning macro body, rather than displacement of its parts, cause tides. Displacement of ocean water in the direction of moving tide is superficial and it cannot produce tidal drag on earth's solid core body.
Abstract: This article attempts to give a simple and logical explanation to the mechanism of shift in directions of tides on planetary bodies. It is based on a radically different dynamics, presented in book 'MATTER (Re-examined)' . Linear motion of a planetary body changes symmetry of additional distortions in universal medium about it. Asymmetry of latticework-squares in planetary body's matter-field (about direction of 'central force') shifts direction of its action, which in turn shifts zenith points of tides from local meridians (facing sun or moon) and on opposite side. Real orbital motion of a spinning macro body enhances deflection of tides from local meridian. Currently, directions of deflections of tides are misinterpreted to suit observation.
Abstract: Free 3D matter-particles and other debris, present in a region of space, may gather under gravitational attraction to form a galactic cloud. Development of a galactic cloud depends on its total matter-content and spin-speed. Galactic cloud (or region within a galactic cloud), with low or no spin-speed, condenses to form a black-hole, under gravitational collapse. Outer regions of a galactic cloud, with higher spin speed, condense to form stable galaxy. A galaxy may remain stable only for a short while. As spin speed of galaxy increases, its matter-content gradually disburses or reverts into universal medium.
Abstract: An evolving galactic cloud, depending on its parameters, may attain stable state for brief period. Total matter-content, spin speed and diameter of spinning galactic cloud determine duration of stable period. This article proposes mutual relation, between these factors, required for a galactic cloud during its life as a stable galaxy.
Abstract: Physical parameters of stable galaxies produce sufficient mutual repulsion by their halos to overcome gravitational attraction between them. However, those very large galactic clouds (or central regions of stable galaxies), which do not develop sufficient spin-speeds to develop into stable galaxies, succumb to gravitational collapse and form very large single macro bodies of very high matter-density. Their huge sizes and very large matter content give them certain logical properties, one of which is to reduce and prevent outward radiation (of light) from the zone of their existence. This phenomenon makes them invisible and hence the name, 'Black Hole'. An alternative concept, presented in the book 'MATTER (Re-examined)' envisages to remove all mysteries about black holes and to explain logical sequences of their birth, life and death.
Abstract: Towards the end of its stable life, a 'black hole' becomes quasar and pulsar. Activities of quasar or pulsar are managed by cyclic outward and inward radial motion of universal medium from or towards its central region. Relative motion of universal medium acts as inertial effort on 3D matter-particles. As and when outer envelope (mantle) of a pulsar is unable to withstand outward effort due to increase in its internal pressure and due to outward displacement of universal medium, the pulsar explodes as a super nova. Intense external pressure on 3D matter-particles causes matter-cores of their photons to merge and form very high-frequency photons.
Abstract: Discovery of gravitational attraction necessitated a cause for even distribution of macro bodies throughout universe. Assumed mutual attraction due to gravitation defies their even distribution unless it is counteracted by repulsion between them, at least in case of large-scale groups of macro bodies. None of current concepts supplies a rational theory. Alternative concept, presented in book 'MATTER (Re-examined)', proposes a logical explanation that describes how neighbouring galaxies overcome gravitational attraction, to settle at a stable distance from each other, during major part of their life. Halo at outer periphery of a spinning galaxy is formed by independent primary matter-particles. Their primary electric fields are mechanically oriented to create sufficient electromagnetic repulsion between neighbouring galaxies. This is a natural process originated in universal medium, which encompasses entire universe. Since galaxies are able to maintain their relative positions in space, universe (as a whole) is able to have perpetual steady state of existence, except for local recycling of matter.
Abstract: Orbital speeds of stars, far from centre of a galaxy, are found roughly constant, instead of reductions predicted by current gravitational theories (applied on galactic and cosmological scales). This is called the anomalous rotation of galaxies. This article intends to show that constant angular speeds of all macro bodies in a galaxy are natural phenomenon and there is no mystery about it.
Abstract: Weight of a macro body is its acceleration due to gravity, in gravitational units, towards another larger macro body. During variations in temperature, a macro body changes quantity of matter (mass), it contains. Since mass is a factor in equations, to determine gravitational attraction and acceleration, macro body's acceleration due to gravity does not change by variation in its mass. Concept, presented in 'Matter (Re-examined)', consider mass as mathematical relation and matter-content as quantity of matter, a macro body contains. It advocates a mechanism, which causes additional changes in magnitude of gravitational attraction over and above changes caused by variation in macro body's mass. Thus, it is logical to find that a macro body weighs less, when hot compared to its weight in cooler state.
Abstract: Currently, analyses of 'Brownian motion' are limited to its relevance to other scientific phenomena. Observed motion of a microscopic solid particle, suspended in a liquid, is attributed to assumed random motion of liquid molecules, which is one of many assumptions of 'kinetic theory'. There is neither a logical cause nor a mechanism nor a known mover, acting on liquid molecules. Hence, root cause of Brownian motion remains a mystery. Aim of this article is to explain a logical mechanism for random motion of molecules of liquid macro body, based on structural behaviour of its matter-particles, rather than to analyse observed motion and its significance to other phenomena.
Abstract: Two equal volumes of water, one slightly warmer than the other, when placed in similar external conditions to freeze, warmer water is noticed to freeze before the other. This phenomenon, (called Mpemba effect), is the result of difference in rate of inter-atomic movements during cooling stages of macro bodies with different initial temperatures.
Abstract: Time is a functional entity, derived from the fundamental property of basic 3Dmatter particles to move at a constant linear seed. 3D matter has no ability to act or move. It is the all-encompassing medium around the 3D matter particle, which moves the 3D matter particle at the highest possible speed. Unit of time is related to the interval required by an elementary 3D matter particle to traverse definite quantity of all-encompassing medium in space. Relating other activities, about 3D matter bodies, to time help us to rationalize in terms of cause and effect relations. Due to its lack of physical form, time can neither expand nor contract nor flow in any direction.
Abstract: 'It from bit' doctrine suggested that laws of physics can be presented in terms of information and hence, information is more fundamental to physics than reality. Reality is about existence and information is about existing objects. An object has to exist before information can be gained about it. Hence, reality is more fundamental than information. 'It from bit' doctrine is not much different from many other modern theories in physics, which consider human faculty above reality. All of them strive to impose human supremacy over nature.
Abstract: By simple mechanics, it is impossible for a free macro body to orbit around another moving macro body, in any type of closed geometrical path. However, while considering two-body problems, relative parameters of macro bodies are considered with one of them steady in space. This simple method of mathematical analysis can give accurate prediction of their future relative parameters. Orbital path of a planetary body appears around its static central body. Circular/elliptical orbits around a static central body, being an imaginary figure, has no value other than to indicate relative positions of concerned macro bodies. All macro bodies, in nature, are moving. In cases of moving central bodies (real situations) or when there are more than two macro bodies in a system, relative considerations cannot describe their orbital paths. Due to phenomenal success of solution to two-body problem by relative considerations, a firm but erroneous belief has established that all planetary bodies move around their central bodies. Adamant belief in imaginary circular/elliptical orbital path is carried forward to three-body system to create an imaginary but unsolvable problem. Three-body problem (as considered today with respect to planetary motions) is unsolvable because real and imaginary situations are mixed in it. It is nothing but a deception from reality, adopted to create a baseless mystery.
Abstract: 'Flyby anomaly' is a significant but unaccounted apparent increase or reduction in linear velocity of a spacecraft during Earth-flybys. This phenomenon could not be explained by current physical laws. This article attempts to show that the noticed discrepancies are apparent and they are produced by faulty geometry used in contemporary laws of planetary motion. In reality, spacecraft and external efforts on it behave normally. There are no causes or actions, which vary spacecraft's linear velocity during Earth-flybys. There is no basis for assumption of strange 'forces' or mysterious effects on or about the spacecraft.
Abstract: Observed locations of pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts, after they left solar system, are displaced from their predicted positions in space and the discrepancy, which could not be explained by current physical laws, is termed as 'pioneer anomaly'. This article attempts to show that noticed discrepancy is an apparent phenomenon, produced by faulty geometry used in contemporary laws of planetary motion. In reality, spacecrafts and external efforts on them behave normally. There is no cause for assumption of strange 'forces' or mysterious effects on these spacecrafts.
Abstract: Reversals of earth's direction of motion in its orbital path around sun is an essential requirement for contemporary explanations on stellar aberration. Earth's orbital path around sun is an apparent concept. Reversal of direction of motion of a macro body of the size of earth and moving at real linear speed of earth, in three months period without affecting its integrity is irrational. However, considering corpuscles of light as 3D matter-particles can provide logical explanation for this phenomenon.
Abstract: Various types of irrational inflationary models of universe were introduced to oppose possible accumulation of all material bodies at a point due to gravitational attraction between them. As no logical mechanism could produce inflationary universe and maintain its stable state, diverse assumptions including big bang origin of universe were proposed. As no known origin to CMBR was readily available, it was accepted as a proof to these assumed theories. However, CMBR has a logical reason and definite mechanisms of production. These are not linked to big bang creation or inflationary state of universe but to its steady state of existence.
Abstract: 'Action at a distance through empty space' is an utterly illogical assumption, used in contemporary physics. In order to reduce irrationality of this assumption, different types of fields are used in explanations of various theories. Generally, these fields are undefined and quite vague in their structures, forms and actions. This essay attempts to briefly describe a real entity, made of matter in definite structural formations and with logical mechanism of actions, which can substitute for various types of undefined fields.
Abstract: Sun's corona appears much hotter than its surface. Temperature of coronal region, which is farther from the surface by more than eight times the radius of sun, is estimated to be over 1 million degrees Kelvin while temperature of sun's surface is only about 6000 degrees Kelvin. (Temperature at the centre of sun is estimated at about 15 million degrees Kelvin). Earth, with average matter-density of 5515 Kg/m3 and mean radius of 6360 km, has an atmosphere that extends to about 700 km (about 11% of radius). Beyond this distance there is no perceptible concentration of 3D matter-particles. On the other hand, sun with average matter-density of 1408 kg/m3 and mean radius of 696000 km is determined to have an atmosphere that extends to its coronal region at a distance of about eight times its mean radius (about 800% of radius). It is absurd to think that sun can sustain concentration of matter-particles at this distance, with sufficient matter-density that can heat up to the estimated temperature of coronal region. As contemporary physical theories are unable to explain any logical mechanism that can produce this difference, it is considered as 'coronal heating problem' in physics. Alternative concept, presented in book 'MATTER (Re-examined)' has a logical mechanism that can produce observed radiation from coronal region (which is far beyond the limit of its atmosphere).
Abstract: Flattening of earth's Polar Regions and bulging of its equatorial region are usually attributed to 'centrifugal force' due to earth's spin motion. 'Centrifugal force' is fictitious, yet it is assumed to physically affect earth's shape. Earth's spin motion is apparent only with respect to its own north-south central (spin) axis. With respect to absolute space, every point on earth continuously moves in same (mean) direction as the direction of sun's linear motion, at slightly different linear speeds. Very small centrifugal action (due to differences in linear speeds of its constituent matter-particles) on earth is not sufficient to produce the observed magnitudes of equatorial bulge and flattening of its polar regions. This article intends to describe an alternative mechanism that causes observed physical deformation of earth.
Abstract: Electric charges are usually treated almost like physical entities. They are assumed to exist in association with electrons and protons and could be transferred from one matter-body to another along with these fundamental particles. Similar electric charges are believed to repel each other and dissimilar electric charges are believed to attract each other. These widely believed assumptions, in contemporary physics, have no logical basis. This article briefly explains nature, structure and mechanism of interaction of electric charges, as given in an alternative concept. Although they differ from currently accepted beliefs, they are based on consistent reasoning, initiated from a single assumption on existence of matter.
Abstract: All physical actions are caused, initiated and accomplished by work. Relation between magnitude of work, done about a macro body and its displacement during work is 'force'. Hence, 'force' is a mathematical aspect related to work and work is the real entity. However, the term 'force' is usually understood as a 'cause' or 'effort' required for an action. Actions are effects of efforts due to causes. Action by an effort results in definite effect on or about a 3D matter-body. Certain mechanism is essential to perform an action. Generally, all physical actions are understood by displacement (motion) of macro bodies in space. 'Action at a distance through empty space' is an impossible proposition. To accomplish motion in space, four things are essential. They are; a macro body that is being moved, an entity that is instrumental to the motion, a mechanism of motion and a reason or cause for the motion. Although mechanism of motion is basically the same in all conditions, there are slight differences in its actions, when causes of motion are in different relative directions or in different planes. This article briefly describes mechanism of motion (by universal medium that is instrumental to motion of a macro body), when causes in a plane are involved.
Abstract : Attempts to define 'matter' were unsuccessful throughout development of natural philosophy. As advancement in physics called for speedier pace, one attribute of matter - the mass - was accepted as a substitute. Mass of a body (an assumed relation that exists in mathematical analyses and in the minds of analyzers) is considered as an equivalent that can represent body's 3D matter-content. Mass has successfully usurped rightful place of 3D matter in all contemporary theories to increase their complexity and confusion. In material world, existence of matter is nearest to absolute truth. Defining matter on this basis can provide logical foundations to physical theories.
Abstract : Opposition to relative movements, between macro bodies in contact, is generally termed as 'friction' . Friction develops from mutual adhesive tendencies of resultant fields adjacent atoms on the contact surfaces of macro bodies in contact. All atoms have resultant fields surrounding their material structures. Tendency of adhesion between interlinking resultant fields of atoms on either side of contact surface is caused by merger of these fields into a common stable structure. Attempt to destabilize resultant structure of merged fields between bodies in contact results in resistance to their relative motion.
Abstract : Atoms are stable and self-stabilizing 3D matter-bodies, which spin about their nuclear/atomic axes. Unless in extreme conditions or due to accidents, no part of atom may removed from it and under no circumstance additional parts may be included in the structure of stable atom. Atoms of all elements (except those of inert elements) have resultant external fields about them. Complimentary atoms arrange themselves to form groups until most of their resultant external fields are inhibited by rotary motion the atoms in planes across their atomic axes. Molecules form crystals and other groups in similar manner for the same purpose. In order to form different combinations of atoms and/or molecules, it is necessary to break present bonds between atoms or between molecules by varying their rotary speeds to enable their resultant external fields to be effective and form different kinds of groups (molecules, crystals, etc.). These actions are generally known as chemical actions.
Abstract: Only an entity that provides substance to all real entities can be the most fundamental. All others are derived from it. In material world, existence of matter is absolute truth. Therefore, matter qualifies as the most fundamental and it provides substance to all real entities.
Abstract: Presently, ‘heat’ is understood as a type of energy and ‘heating’ as a process of transfer of energy. Energy, being ability to do work, is a quality and hence a functional entity. Functional entities have neither objective reality nor positive existence in space. Therefore, energy has neither form, nor structure, nor real existence. However, in contemporary physics, energy (an imaginary entity) is treated almost like a real entity with form, structure, objective reality with ability to transfer and can change forms. It is currently used as cause of actions, where no other cause is obvious.
According to an alternative concept, presented in the book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’, energy is a functional entity that develops wherever and whenever work is done in association with a three-dimensional matter-body. Heating is a process of reducing three-dimensional matter-content level of a macro body. In any body, its 3D matter-content and work associated with its integrity and state are complimentary and support each other. 3D matter-content of a body is the quantity of matter it contains in the form of basic 3D matter-particles. Energy-content about a body is the strain developed, due to distortions (work-done), in universal medium about the body.
Abstract: Entire universe (and everything in it, including us) exists. Its existence is not one of many conjectural activities of human mind. Irrespective of presence of human race, the universe existed, is existing and will continue to exist in more or less in similar state. Generally considering, there are two levels of existence. First level of existence is that which does not depend on others for existence. Universe as a whole and its material constituents form this group. These are real entities. They are there because of their objectivity. Second level of existence is that which depends on others for existence. These are functional entities. Functional entities are born out of real entities and their relations. They are created by intellect of real entities for definite purposes.
Abstract: Mathematical deductions are nothing but exercises of human mind. Mathematical equations or laws have no mind of their own. Human minds manipulate information from various ‘cause and effect’ relations to form and interpret various mathematical laws and derive suitable equations. Therefore, it is the human minds that give rise to aims and intentions rather than mindless mathematics. Without human intelligence to formulate them from cause and effect relations, mathematical laws and equations remain mere sequential arrangements of notations.
Abstract: Entire space, outside the most basic 3D matter-particles is filled with an all-encompassing universal medium, structured by quanta of matter. Each of basic 3D matter-particles is accompanied by separate set of structural distortions in universal medium, which sustains integrity and movements of its core-body. 3D matter-core and structural distortions in surrounding universal medium, together, constitute a photon. Light (radiation) is a flow of photons (corpuscles of three-dimensional matter). For existence of both, the photon and the universal medium, it is essential for the universal medium to move disc-shaped 3D matter-core of a photon at the highest possible linear speed and spin it (about one of its diameters) at frequency proportional to its 3D matter-content, within certain limits. Attempt to increase linear speed of a photon’s 3D matter-core, compels it to assimilate quanta of matter from surrounding universal medium and thereby increase disc-thickness and spin speed (frequency). In case of very high-frequency photons, increased thickness of 3D matter-core reduces torque on it and encourages it to discard quanta of matter from it. These two opposing phenomena, acting simultaneously, on very high-frequency photons radiated from sun and passing through the vicinity of earth (or any other moving macro body) ensure ample supply of free quanta of matter in the region. Universal medium gathers, shapes and compresses these free quanta of matter to form new photons to be radiated from the region. These radiations appear as aurora to us. This essay very briefly describes mechanism of creation of photons (corpuscles of light) of varying colour and complexity displayed during aurora borealis (northern lights) and aurora australis (southern lights), as envisaged in alternative concept, presented in the book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’. For details, kindly refer to same .
Abstract: Uneven efforts, acting perpendicular to the spin axis of a rotating body, invoke gyroscopic precession and results in the body turning about an axis perpendicular to its spin axis. Such a body would flip itself (in the same direction and in the same plane) as it moves along its curved path about the central body. This phenomenon gives rise to ‘Dzhanibekov Effect’.
Abstract: Matter is the only substance that can provide real existence to a body in nature. Since matter is the constituent of all real objects, it has to exist in a form much smaller than the smallest real physical object in nature. ‘Hypothesis on MATTER’, an alternative concept that logically explains all physical phenomena, envisages that matter exists in nature in the form of tiny bits, called ‘quanta of matter’. A quantum of matter is the only postulated particle in this concept. Diverse matter bodies (including an all-encompassing universal medium) with assorted properties and their interactions are results of various combinations of ‘quanta of matter’. This article gives a brief description of ‘quantum of matter’, as postulated in ‘Hypothesis on MATTER’.
Abstract: Wobbling, caused by slow continuous change in the orientation of earth’s apparent rotational axis, is called ‘precession of the equinoxes’. Rotation of earth is an apparent motion only with respect to its central axis. Deflection of earth’s apparent rotational axis is caused by shift in its center of gravity from its geometrical centre due to non-uniform distribution of its 3D matter-content rather than by precession due to its apparent spin motion. Deflections of earth’s apparent spin axis, caused by northward shift of its centre of gravity, during earth’s orbital path on either side of the Sun’s mean path are in opposite directions and hence the resultant magnitude of deflection depends on eccentricity of earth’s apparent elliptical orbit around the sun.