Alternative concept, presented in 'MATTER (Re-examined)', explains all physical phenomena related to matter, using just a single foundational assumption that 'Substance is fundamental and matter alone provides substance to all real entities'. Only one type of basic matter-particle - 'Quantum of matter' - derived from this assumption is required to explain all of physical reality in universe. Quanta of matter form the all-encompassing universal medium that pervades entire space, outside 3D matter-particles. Author explains a wide array of physical phenomena from origin of 3D matter to gravity and subatomic interactions to cosmological events, using but simple mechanical interactions of quanta of matter. There is no more any need to envisage actions at a distance through empty space or to invoke irrational assumptions like imaginary particles, diversity of natural forces, mass-energy equivalence, constancy of light's speed, dual nature of electric charge, singularities, big bang, etc. using complex mathematics. This concept can radically alter our understanding of physical universe and at the same time, explain complex physical phenomena using simple 'Cause and Effect' relationships. This book is an enlarged version of pre-published book by same author titled 'Hypothesis on MATTER'.

A unified theory that is applicable under all conditions to matter (material objects), in all its forms is a longstanding desire of physicists. This desire clearly indicates that all is not well about current physical theories. Hence, the search for a new theory. But contemporary science has advanced too far on irrational assumptions, illogical interactions and imaginary particles. Even a very small correction, attempted in its fundamental area, is bound to topple the cart of science. Therefore, very few persons dare to suggest such changes. All current searches are, in some or other way, based on or continuation of contemporary theories. Searches based on these 'not very logical theories' cannot, naturally, yield a better theory. In order to find a better theory, we need to search outside orthodox realm of physics. Any one, who dares to move outside the limits of orthodox physics, in search for a better concept, is immediately branded as heretics and is isolated from main-stream physics. Their work is not considered worthwhile. This tendency, on the part of establishment, is the main hindrance towards a unified theory. 

I wish to present a radically different approach, based on an alternative concept, in the hope that at least few scientists may read and evaluate it with unbiased mind. This concept explains all physical phenomena related to matter, by using same principles, under same basic laws and under all conditions. Concept, given in book 'MATTER (Re-examined)', provides simple and logical explanation to all physical phenomena, related to matter. This book includes explanations on most of unexplained or incorrectly explained phenomena. A logical system has some elementary postulations/assumptions, on which its reasoning is based. Whole of this concept is developed from a single assumption that 'substance is fundamental and matter alone provides substance to all real entities' and on only one type of postulated particles - 'Quanta of matter' - with definite properties, derived from the above given assumption. 'Existence of matter' is nearest to absolute truth in material world. Quanta of matter are the only unstructured matter-particles in nature. Quanta of matter fill entire space outside basic three-dimensional matter-particles. No other assumed effects or virtual particles are needed to explain any physical phenomenon of matter-bodies or its apparent interactions. Three-dimensional matter-bodies are inert and they cannot act or interact through empty space. Therefore, there is a real entity interlinking all 3D matter-particles in space, making it possible for their interaction through a universal medium. Both, 3D matter-bodies and structured universal medium are made of quanta of matter. All 'natural forces' are different manifestation of the same basic effort. Since 3D matter is inert, basic effort is a product of universal medium. Efforts (forces) and their interactions are nothing but simple mechanical movements of quanta of matter in structured universal medium. 

Aim of this book is to convey an alternative concept, which after further development, may lead towards a unified theory of basic physical laws. This concept is not based on or developed as a continuation of any of contemporary theories. Its development has resulted in many conclusions, which are logical and simple but are contrary to current beliefs. These may, at first sight, appear bizarre or unorthodox. Reader is forewarned not to be discouraged by such conclusions. By following chain of reasoning, followed in the book, you will shortly find them more logical, simple and better suited for phenomena in general. Readers are humbly requested to read through whole text, sequentially at least once, without paying much attention to conclusions or trying to compare this concept with existing theories. Once you are acquainted with chain of reasoning, you may evaluate and compare conclusions of this book with any other theory. 

Any part of this concept, taken in isolation, without having a general idea of concept, may not make much sense. Since this concept is based on properties and behavior of unstructured matter, it is necessary to understand 'quantum of matter' (given in chapter TWO) before attempting to read explanations on other physical phenomena of matter. Most essential requirements for readers, to follow through this text, are patience and open-mind. I beg pardon of esteemed reader in advance for not adhering to well-established theories by great scientists. 
Few controversial conclusions are listed below:
1. Matter is the sole real entity in nature. It provides substance for objective reality and positive existence to all physical entities, including a materialistic universal medium.
2. Matter, in its unstructured state, has a tendency to reduce its existence to minimum spatial dimensions. Because of this, a block of unstructured matter fragments into minute matter-particles (quanta of matter), which strive to remain in single spatial dimension.
3. Quanta of matter form two-dimensional latticework structures in all possible planes, which together form a universal medium. It fills entire space outside basic three-dimensional matter-particles and is in direct contact with all basic 3D matter-particles in nature. There are no actions at a distance through empty space.
4. Universal medium is made of quanta of matter and its matter-density equals that of basic three-dimensional matter-particle, yet it is flexible as an ideal fluid.Together with basic three-dimensional matter-particles, universal medium forms a single block of matter (without voids) that fills entire space. Universal medium provides an absolute reference in space.
5. Universal medium is self-stabilizing entity that causes and conducts all actions (apparent interactions between objects), including creation, development, sustenance and destruction of all three-dimensional objects/bodies. It is simultaneously particulate & continuous, isotropic & anisotropic and serene.       
6. Because of its structure, universal medium is inherently under compression and it applies pressure on all three-dimensional objects. This property of universal medium is gravitation.  Gravitation is enormously strong so that it is able to convert single-dimensional quanta of matter into three-dimensional matter. However, gravitation can be applied only to convex-curved surfaces of basic three-dimensional matter-particles.
7. Magnitude of gravitation corresponds to extent of universal medium that exerts the pressure. Extent of universal medium between two three-dimensional matter-particles is always less than extents of universal medium on their outer sides. Hence higher gravitational actions on outer sides tend to move them towards each other. This tendency is understood as gravitational attraction or gravity. Gravitational attraction (gravity) is the resultant (relatively a minor by-product) of separate gravitational actions on two three-dimensional matter-particles by universal medium. Gravitational attraction between two macro bodies (at any instant) is between extremely few basic three-dimensional matter-particles in them rather than whole bodies. All other 'natural forces' originate from self-stabilizing property of universal medium.
8. Structural deformation of universal medium is work; stress due to structural deformation is energy. Energy is a functional entity without positive existence or objective reality. Delay in stabilization of structural distortions in universal medium causes inertia. Fundamentally, there is only one type of effort (commonly known as 'force') and it is of push nature. 'Force' is the rate of additional distortions introduced in universal medium (in association with an object) with respect to distance moved by the object.
9. A macro body gains three-dimensional matter-content and associated energy during cooling and loses them on heating. Heat is a process of losing three-dimensional matter-content and associated energy rather than a form of (undefined) energy. Energy, being a functional entity, cannot be equated to motion, which is the result of (real) work.
10. A corpuscle of radiation (photon) has a segmented disc-shaped three-dimensional matter-core that spins about one of its diameter at spin speed proportional to its three-dimensional matter-content and moves at highest possible (hence constant) linear speed. Three-dimensional matter-core provides its particle-nature.Movements of its three-dimensional matter-core are accomplished by structural distortions in surrounding universal medium, which have many similarities with electromagnetic waves in each plane. This part gives irs wave-nature (frequency). Linearly moving rotating distortions in universal medium together with enclosed three-dimensional matter-core form a corpuscle of radiation (photon).
11. Corpuscular nature of light (photons) can explain all phenomena of light. A photon, being a three-dimensional matter-body, is affected by gravitational attraction. However, since it cannot be accelerated in the direction of its linear motion, photon's mass  indeterminate. Light is radiated at a constant critical (linear) speed (with respect to surrounding universal medium) in any region of space and it is the ultimate linear speed of motion, limited by the ability of the universal medium to transfer distortions in it. Attempt to increase linear speed of light increases its frequency (matter-content) rather than its linear speed. Attempts to change linear speed of a photon (light) will change its frequency rather than its linear speed.
12. Photons are the most basic three-dimensional matter-particles. They form all other primary and fundamental 3D matter-particles. Two complimentary photons, in binary arrangement, form a biton. Two bitons, in perpendicular planes about a common centre, form a tetron. Three bitons, in mutually perpendicular planes about a common centre, form a hexton. Depending on relative directions of linear and spin motions of constituent photons, a hexton is either an electron or a positron. Single-layered spherical shell, formed by tetrons is a neutron. Neutron-like spherical shell formed about a positron is a proton. Two identical neutron-like spherical shells formed  about a positron is a deuteron. Deuterons are nucleons in most atoms.
13. Linear motions of constituent photons in circular path in a biton produce distortions in universal medium about it. This is primary electric field. Primary electric fields of constituent bitons in hextons produce resultant fields about them. A positron has two magnetic-north polarities with no well-defined magnetic-south polarity. An electron has two magnetic-south polarities with no well-defined magnetic-north polarity. Both, positron and electron have identical electric fields about them. Positrons have inward (attractive) nuclear fields and electrons have outward (repulsive) nuclear fields.
14. Random formation of nucleus (from available nucleons) stop when the first orbital electron approaches and nucleus starts to spin about its axis. Mechanical stability of spinning nucleus is the sole criteria for stability of atomic nucleus. Nucleons form circular rings, which attach side by side along nuclear axis. Shape of atomic nucleus (in larger atoms) is tubular, with varying girth at different sections. Orbiting electrons form another tubular structure to enclose nucleus. Number of orbiting electrons are strictly equal to number of positrons in nucleus and each electron is paired to a corresponding positron.
15. Deformed regions in universal medium are fields. They are classified according to nature of distortions, which is indicated by imaginary lines of force. Linear lines of force indicate magnetic fields, circular lines of force indicate electric fields and radial lines of force indicate nuclear fields. Electric charges are relative directions oflines of force in an electric field. They are synonymous with poles of a magnet. As they are relative directions  electric charges of an electric field depend on the reference used and every electric field has both positive and negative electric charges.
16. Angular deflection of atomic axis from its neutral alignment with its neighbouring atoms is electric potential of the atom. Electric potential gradually spreads from both terminals of source towards electric mid-point in a closed conductor, where atoms are at their neutral alignment with each other. Angular deflection between atomic and nuclear axes produce resultant electric field about an atom.
17. There are no translation of fundamental particles during an electric current. Electric current is establishment of resultant electric fields in all perpendicular planes along axis of a conductor. Interactive force between electric fields (charges) depends not only on their types but also on the distance between them. Within zilch-effort distance; similar electric charges repel each other and dissimilar electric charges attract each other. Beyond zilch-effort distance, similar electric charges attract each other and dissimilar electric charges repel each other. At zilch-effort distance two electric fields do not produce interactive force. At greater distance, curvatures of lines of force being very small, electric fields behave like magnetic fields.
18. Real planetary orbital path is wavy about mean path of moving central body. Elliptical orbits are only apparent considerations.  As sun is orbiting around galactic centre, it is imperative that all macro bodies in solar system orbit in the same plane. Stable orbital motion can be achieved only by those bodies which enter their datum orbital path at the right approach angle through permitted windows from the rear of central body.  All planets in solar system arrived from outside.
19. Parts of central forces on central/planetary bodies cause their spin motions in their orbital planes. Magnitude and direction of spin depend on relation between semi-orbital paths on either side of mean path. Every spinning planet accelerates in its spin motion. Slowing of terrestrial spin speed is a myth. Spin motion of a planet is with respect to its spin axis. With respect to external reference, planets have negligible spin speed.
20. External effort, acting on a linearly moving-spinning body, deforms the body along the direction of force in both directions. Deformation, when related to assumed mean shape of the body appears as tides. Tides are mere changes in the shape of the linearly moving-spinning body and no work (effort/force) is required to create tide.
21. Magnetic field about a very large macro body is formed by secondary-electric fields of free-floating atoms in its relatively calm fluid surface. Large upheavals in ocean water may change magnitude and direction of terrestrial magnetism.
22. Very large macro bodies radiate (three-dimensional matter and associated energy) by gravitational collapse alone. No need for nuclear fusion, on stars, for radiation from them. Magnitude and diversity of radiation depends solely on magnitude of gravitational collapse.
23. There are no 'singularities'. Physical laws are equally applicable throughout the universe, under all conditions. Magnitudes of natural constants in any region of space depend on the nature of universal medium in that region.
24. Except their extremely large three-dimensional matter-content and size, 'black holes' are ordinary macro bodies without mysterious properties. Every stable galaxy has a central black hole. Photons radiated from a black hole disintegrate before reaching external observer. Electromagnetic interaction between halos keeps stable galaxies away from each other. Black holes help constant recycling of matter between different spatial dimensional states maintains entropy of universe within limits.
25. Extent of universe is limited by ability of observer to gather information from. On a larger scale, the universe is in steady state and infinite in extent and time.Different parts of universe disintegrate and recreate in cyclical order.
26. And many more...................       
(see table of contents for topics)
Logical development of this concept (based on a single assumption that 'substance is fundamental and matter alone provides substance to all real entities') and following strict cause and effect relation, provides all the above conclusions. Links to first five chapters of book are available for free download. Reader may evaluate chain of reasoning, used to develop this concept, from these chapters.
Read 'ARTICLES' to sample how this concept suits to explain (logically) various physical phenomena. You may evaluate this concept after seeing the pointers given in article  'Problems In Contemporary Physics' (.pdf) to understand how most of mysterious problems in physics disappear.
You may also compare explanations provided by this concept on various phenomena with those given by contemporary physical theories at 'Contemporary physical theories Vs. The concept proposed in the book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’' (.pdf)
With Regards,
Nainan K. Varghese

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